Dutch Journal of Finance and Management

Empowerment Relationship in Intra Organization Entrepreneurship
Morteza Shahbakhsh 1, Negar Elhamian 2 *, Hassah Shahraki Pour 3
More Detail
1 Department of Educational Sciences, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zehedan, IRAN
2 Department Educational Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, IRAN
3 Department Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University of Roudehen, Tehran, IRAN
* Corresponding Author
Research Article

Dutch Journal of Finance and Management, 2019 - Volume 3 Issue 1, Article No: em0058
https://doi.org/10.29333/djfm/5875

Published Online: 28 May 2019

Views: 146 | Downloads: 127

How to cite this article
APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Shahbakhsh et al., 2019)
Reference: Shahbakhsh, M., Elhamian, N., & Pour, H. S. (2019). Empowerment Relationship in Intra Organization Entrepreneurship. Dutch Journal of Finance and Management, 3(1), em0058. https://doi.org/10.29333/djfm/5875
Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Shahbakhsh M, Elhamian N, Pour HS. Empowerment Relationship in Intra Organization Entrepreneurship. DUTCH J FINANCE MANA. 2019;3(1):em0058. https://doi.org/10.29333/djfm/5875
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Shahbakhsh M, Elhamian N, Pour HS. Empowerment Relationship in Intra Organization Entrepreneurship. DUTCH J FINANCE MANA. 2019;3(1), em0058. https://doi.org/10.29333/djfm/5875
Chicago
In-text citation: (Shahbakhsh et al., 2019)
Reference: Shahbakhsh, Morteza, Negar Elhamian, and Hassah Shahraki Pour. "Empowerment Relationship in Intra Organization Entrepreneurship". Dutch Journal of Finance and Management 2019 3 no. 1 (2019): em0058. https://doi.org/10.29333/djfm/5875
Harvard
In-text citation: (Shahbakhsh et al., 2019)
Reference: Shahbakhsh, M., Elhamian, N., and Pour, H. S. (2019). Empowerment Relationship in Intra Organization Entrepreneurship. Dutch Journal of Finance and Management, 3(1), em0058. https://doi.org/10.29333/djfm/5875
MLA
In-text citation: (Shahbakhsh et al., 2019)
Reference: Shahbakhsh, Morteza et al. "Empowerment Relationship in Intra Organization Entrepreneurship". Dutch Journal of Finance and Management, vol. 3, no. 1, 2019, em0058. https://doi.org/10.29333/djfm/5875
ABSTRACT
The current research was done with the goal of investigating the relationship between human resources empowerment dimension and the employees of Zabol University of medical sciences entrepreneurial level. The method of research is survey descriptive and the research statistical population includes all employees of Zabol University of medical sciences in 2014 that were 270 people that considering Morgan table 155 people were chosen as sample. Sampling method was random simple. Research tools is research made questionnaire including 30 questions that its validity were confirmed by experts , teachers and Guide Master and its Cronbach’s alpha coefficient reliability was calculated as 0.779. For data statistical analysis descriptive statistical indexes, mean, standard deviation and statistic and single sample t test and factor analysis were used for analyzing research questions which were done using software SPSS and Amos on data. The result of test showed that there is a relationship between empowerment with the employees of Zabol University of medical sciences entrepreneurial level. There is also relationship between empowerment dimensions mean self-effectiveness, autonomy, personal acceptance and trust with Zabol University of medical sciences entrepreneurial level.
KEYWORDS
Show / Hide HTML Content

INTRODUCTION

In conditions that organizations were under effect of economic competitions, the necessity of paying attention to work quality and organizational efficiency were very important. To improve its organization performance, management should look at organization’s quality and try as much as possible maintain its organization’s quality of job performance by proposing executive strategies. That means basically each program based on empowerment can cause productivity and have more production, more suitable services, customers’ attraction and finally taking a larger share of the domestic and foreign markets (Ehsani and Shafazadeh, 2012). They also reported a significant relationship between psychological empowerment and staffs’ performance, but this relationship in the best way was inadequate. This research has proposed primary theory of effect-creativity circle that is interval analysis of this study identified primacy of positive effect on creative thoughts and quality analysis and positive effect as a result of creative thought (Luchsinger and Bagby, 1987). But when staffs are given necessary will and they are encouraged organizational entrepreneurship will improve. Considering that offers’ system is often down to up process, they are considered as the most important tools in facilitating the process of organizational entrepreneurship.

Empowerment is a basic principle in today organizations’ management. The goal of empowerment is creating an organization consist of committed and enthusiastic staffs that did their job duties because of their belief and enjoyment (Verdi Nejad et al., 2008). Management based on staffs’ empowerment, requires the application of efficient and effective keys to increase human resources. Empowerment is a basic principle in today organizations’ management (Mohammadi, 2001). As it was presented before, the most important and vital of organization asset is its manpower. Manpower quality and empowerment is the most important organizations’ survival and life factor. Empowered manpower creates empowered organization. Economic growth and as result creating entrepreneurship is indebted enabling educated staffs (Drucker, 2009). Empowered organization is an environment that staffs in different groups cooperate in performing activities and it was shown in investigations that human resources are the most important and valuable assets that each organization have. The most effective way of achieving competitive advantage in current situation is making organizations staffs more efficient (Mir Sepasi, 2006). Jones and English found that there is a significant relationship between psychological empowerment with innovation, opportunities oriented and idealism in rural areas (Jones and English, 2005).

Empowerment is created when power, information, knowledge and incentives are distributed in organization and if one of these four elements is zero empowerment will be zero as well. There are some changes in scientific society of country since formation of higher education formally in country because of different reasons. Education System is wide either in goal field and duties or responsibilities and is very complex and important. Not paying attention to manpower empowerment will affect decision making methods, organizational relationships, communication and motivation. The important case of handle skilled and professional manpower is effective in organizations’ growth so a field must be provided that solve obstacles and problems in empowerment considering organizations’ goals to promote the level of entrepreneurship through the realization of professional and specialized. The lack of attention to grow of empowerment causes loosing partnership and staffs’ creativity and organizations’ goal won’t be obtaine (Eskandari, 2004).

Research Questions

Main question: What is the relationship between manpower empowering aspects and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences?

Sub questions

  1. What is the relationship between Self-effectiveness and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences?

  2. What is the relationship between autonomy and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences?

  3. What is the relationship between Personal accept results and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences?

  4. What is the relationship between trust and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences?

METHODOLOGY

The current research in terms of goal is functional and in the field of human resources because its findings help solving special problems inside organizations and improving current situation. Since this research seek investigating every single aspect of empowerment relationship of manpower with intra organization entrepreneurship. Current research is descriptive in terms of collecting data and correlation in terms of researches kind. So for collecting data of current situation of empowerment aspects of employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences the method of this research is survey descriptive.

Statistical population of research includes all employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences that were 270 people. Sample volume estimate of this research is done according to Morgan table. In Morgan table sample volume for this research statistical population is 155 that were chosen as statistical sample. The method of collecting data is fild and library ones and questionnaire tool also was used to collect information. Used questionnaire was research made. Also used entrepreneurship questionnaire was research made too. The reliability coefficient of questionnaire’s questions was calculated through SPSS software and Cronbach’s alpha that was equal to 0.779. As result questionnaire had acceptable compliance.

In this study descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used for analyzing data that in descriptive statistics some indexes such as mean, median, mode frequency tables and diagrams and central dispersion indices such as variance and standard deviation were used and in inferential statistics, appropriate test with data such as t-test and Spearman correlation coefficient were used.

RESULTS

Table 1 shows general information of statistical indices of research variables that include measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion trends.

 

Table 1. Statistical indicators related to the study variables in study

Variable

Central tendency indicators

Dispersion tendency indicators

Moe

Median

Mean

Range

Variance

Standard deviation

Self-effectiveness

1

1

1.1

1

0.022

0.14

Autonomy

1.25

1.25

1.33

1

0.053

0.22

Personal accept results

1

1.14

1.16

1

0.03

0.17

Trust

1.13

1.25

1.29

1.25

0.073

0.26

Entrepreneurship

1

1.2

1.22

0.72

0.023

0.15

 

Data Analysis

Main question: What is the relationship between manpower empowering aspects and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences? For investigating the relationship between manpower empowering aspects and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences using Amos software 9 we fitted factor analysis of the model and evaluated the effect of each one of human resources empowerment aspects with the level of entrepreneurial in employees. Results are shown in Table 2.

 

Table 2. Significant results of the factor analysis model

Model

Chi-square statistic

Degree of freedom

Significant amount

Factor analysis

12.295

2

0.001

 

As can be seen in Table 3, the values of significance for all empowerment aspects were equal to zero that is less than 0.05. Therefore all these factors are effective and significant in factor analysis model. Also their estimate coefficient is positive. Therefor there is positive and significant relationship between human resources empowerment aspects and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences.

 

Table 3. The results of the factor analysis model non-standard coefficients

     

Estimation

Standard error

Critical area

Significant amount

Self-effectiveness

<---

entrepreneurship

1

-

-

-

Autonomy

<---

entrepreneurship

2.51

0.58

4.33

0.00

Personal accept results

<---

entrepreneurship

1.78

0.41

4.33

0.00

Trust

<---

entrepreneurship

2.18

0.5

3.97

0.00

 

As it is seen in Figure 1, each one of aspects’ standard coefficient and standard effect on the level of entrepreneurship. As it is clear autonomy aspect (with 0.73 coefficients) had more effect than other aspects on level of entrepreneurship. On the other hand self-effectiveness (with 0.45) has less effect on level of entrepreneurship.

 

Figure 1. The figure of factor analysis model of research with standard coefficients

 

Sub Questions

What is the relationship between Self-effectiveness and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences?

For checking the relationship between Self-effectiveness and level of entrepreneurship first using single sample t-test the effect of self-effectiveness is evaluated on level of entrepreneurship. In this mood the average of self-effectiveness is compared with average value of 1.5. The results are shown in Table 4.

 

Table 4. Descriptive statistics of self-effectiveness

Variable

Count

Mean

Standard deviation

Standard error of the mean

Self-effectiveness

155

1.108

0.14

0.011

 

As it is seen in Table 5 the amount of significance of single sample t-test is equal to zero. But mentioned hypothesis was unilateral. Therefor for obtaining the value of unilateral significance because of mean difference being negative (-0.39) we have to divide the value of unilateral significance value (zero) into 2 and reduced 1. So unilateral significance value is 1, which is more than 0.05. Therefor self-effectiveness is effective on the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. Now the relationship between self-effectiveness and level of entrepreneurship is checked through Spearman correlation coefficient.

 

Table 5. The results of single sample t-test

Variable

Test value = 3

T-statistics

Degree of freedom

Significant Value (bilateral)

Mean difference

Confidence interval %95

Lower bound

Upper bound

Self-effectiveness

-32.82

154

0.00

-0.39

-0.41

-0.36

 

As it can be seen in Table 6 the value of significance is zero that is less than 0.05. Therefor there is a significant relationship between Self-effectiveness and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. Also correlation coefficient is 0.601 and positive. Therefor there is a direct and average relationship between Self-effectiveness and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. It means whatever self-effectiveness is more the level of entrepreneurship will be more.

 

Table 6. The results of Spearman correlation coefficient test

Variable

Entrepreneurship

Self-effectiveness

Spearman correlation coefficient

0.601

Significant value

0.00

 

What is the relationship between autonomy and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences?

For checking the relationship between autonomy and the level of entrepreneurial first using single sample t-test the effect of autonomy is evaluated on level of entrepreneurship. In this mood the average of autonomy is compared with average value of 1.5. The results are shown in Table 7.

 

Table 7. Descriptive statics of autonomy

Variable

Count

Mean

Standard deviation

Standard error of the mean

Autonomy

155

1.33

0.22

0.018

 

As it is seen in Table 8 the amount of significance of single sample t-test is equal to zero. But mentioned hypothesis was unilateral. Therefor for obtaining the value of unilateral significance because of mean difference being negative (-0.166) we have to divide the value of unilateral significance value (zero) into 2 and reduced 1. So unilateral significance value is 1, which is more than 0.05. Therefor autonomy is effective on the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. Now the relationship between autonomy and level of entrepreneurship is checked through Spearman correlation coefficient.

 

Table 8. The results of single sample t-test

Variable

Test value = 3

T-statistics

Degree of freedom

Significant Value (bilateral)

Mean difference

Confidence interval %95

Lower bound

Upper bound

Autonomy

-9.043

154

0.00

-0.166

-0.203

-0.13

 

As it can be seen in Table 9 the value of significance is zero that is less than 0.05. Therefor there is a significant relationship between autonomy and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. Also correlation coefficient is 0.763 and positive. Therefor there is a direct and high relationship between autonomy and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. It means whatever autonomy is more the level of entrepreneurship will be more.

 

Table 9. The results of Spearman correlation coefficient test

Variable

Entrepreneurship

Autonomy

Spearman correlation coefficient

0.763

Significant value

0.00

 

What is the relationship between Personal accept results and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences?

For checking the relationship between personal accept results and level of entrepreneurship first using single sample t-test the effect of personal accept results is evaluated on level of entrepreneurship. In this mood the average of personal accepts results are compared with average value of 1.5. The results are shown in Table 10.

 

Table 10. Descriptive statistics of personal accept results

Variable

Count

Mean

Standard deviation

Standard error of the mean

Personal accept results

155

1.16

0.17

0.014

 

As it is seen in Table 11 the amount of significance of single sample t-test is equal to zero. But mentioned hypothesis was unilateral. Therefor for obtaining the value of unilateral significance because of mean difference being negative (-0.33) we have to divide the value of unilateral significance value (zero) into 2 and reduced 1. So unilateral significance value is 1, which is more than 0.05. Therefor personal accept results is effective on the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. Now the relationship between personal accept results and level of entrepreneurship is checked through Spearman correlation coefficient.

 

Table 11. The results of single sample t-test

Variable

Test value = 3

T-statistics

Degree of freedom

Significant Value (bilateral)

Mean difference

Confidence interval %95

Lower bound

Upper bound

Personal accept results

-23.37

154

0.00

-0.33

-0.23503

-0.303

 

As it can be seen in Table 12 the value of significance is zero that is less than 0.05. Therefor there is a significant relationship between personal accept results and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. Also correlation coefficient is 0.706 and positive. Therefor there is a direct and high relationship between personal accept results and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. It means whatever personal accept results is more the level of entrepreneurship will be more.

 

Table 12. The results of Spearman correlation coefficient test

Variable

Entrepreneurship

Personal accept results

Spearman correlation coefficient

0.706

Significant value

0.00

 

What is the relationship between trust and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences?

For checking the relationship between personal accept results and level of entrepreneurship first using single sample t-test the effect of trust is evaluated on level of entrepreneurship. In this mood the average of trust is compared with average value of 1.5. The results are shown in Table 13.

 

Table 13. Descriptive statistics of trust

Variable

Count

Mean

Standard deviation

Standard error of the mean

Trust

155

1.29

0.26

0.022

 

As it is seen in Table 14 the amount of significance of single sample t-test is equal to zero. But mentioned hypothesis was unilateral. Therefor for obtaining the value of unilateral significance because of mean difference being negative (-0.205) we have to divide the value of unilateral significance value (zero) into 2 and reduced 1. So unilateral significance value is 1, which is more than 0.05. Therefor trust is effective on the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. Now the relationship between trust and level of entrepreneurship is checked through Spearman correlation coefficient.

 

Table 14. The results of single sample t-test

Variable

Test value = 3

T-statistics

Degree of freedom

Significant Value (bilateral)

Mean difference

Confidence interval %95

Lower bound

Upper bound

Trust

-9.35

154

0.00

-0.205

-0.24

-0.16

 

As it can be seen in Table 15 the value of significance is zero that is less than 0.05. Therefor there is a significant relationship between trust and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. Also correlation coefficient is 0.741 and positive. Therefor there is a direct and high relationship between trust results and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. It means whatever trust is more the level of entrepreneurship will be more.

 

Table 15. The results of Spearman correlation coefficient test

Variable

Entrepreneurship

Trust

Spearman correlation coefficient

0.741

Significant value

0.00

 

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

About the first question of research that “What is the relationship between manpower empowering aspects and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences” results have shown that there is a positive and significant relationship between manpower empowerment aspects and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. The obtained results of this research is aligned with the results of Madhooshi and Sadati research named the effectiveness of knowledge management process on organizational entrepreneurship (case study: Small businesses and medium-East Mazandaran) that showed sharing knowledge and using knowledge directly and significantly affect organizational entrepreneurship on the other hand there is a relationship between collecting knowledge on organizational entrepreneurship with sharing and using knowledge.

About the first sub question of research that “What is the relationship between Self-effectiveness and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences” the results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between self-effectiveness and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. The obtained results of this research is aligned with Volsch et al research named Removal of entrepreneurship across generations landscape stewardship theory, that showed that entrepreneurship affects family and new investments and also its growth and development.

About the second sub question of research that “What is the relationship between autonomy and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences” the results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between autonomy and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. The obtained results of this research is aligned with results of Kadir et al named The relationship between education and entrepreneurship support institutions of higher learning in Malaysia that showed educational support helps attitudinal and behavioral factors. And each factor such as supporting attitudinal, behavioral and educational targeted entrepreneurship has relationship among professional collages.

About the third sub question of research that “What is the relationship between personal accept results and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences” the results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between personal accept result and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. The obtained results of this research is aligned with the results of Ajam, Azizian Kohan, Seraj and Farahani research named The relationship between psychological factors empowerment and entrepreneurial organizational management of physical education in in Khorasan Razavi Khorasan Razavi province that showed there is a direct and positive relationship among psychological key factors of empowerment such as significant, the sense of self-determining, influence and trust feeling with organizational entrepreneurship.

About the second sub question of research that “What is the relationship between trust and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences” the results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between trust and the level of entrepreneurial in employees of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. The obtained results of this research is aligned with results of Ajam, Azizian Kohan, Seraj and Farahani research named The relationship between psychological factors empowerment and entrepreneurial organizational management of physical education in in Khorasan Razavi Khorasan Razavi province that showed there is a direct and positive relationship among psychological key factors of empowerment such as significant, the sense of self-determining, influence and trust feeling with organizational entrepreneurship.

REFERENCES
  • Drucker, F. (2009). Empowerment in organizations. Journal of Humanities Empowerment, 12(4), 98-117.
  • Ehsani, M. and Shafazadeh, A. (2012). Examine the empowerment in organizations. Forough Tadbir, 20, 36-44.
  • Eskandari, M. (2004). Designing a system pattern of enabling managers. Teacher of humanities, 8(2), 53-80.
  • Jones, C. and English, J. (2005). A contemporary approach to entrepreneurship education. Journal of education & Training, 46, 416-420. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910410569533
  • Luchsinger, V. and Bagby, D. R. (1987). Entrepreneurship and intranreneurship. Advanced Management Journal, 52(3), 10-13.
  • Mirsepasi, N. (2006). Strategic management of human resources and labor relations. Tehran, Iran: Mir publications.
  • Mohammadi, M. (2001). Empowering of human resources. Journal of management studies of improvement and progress, 31, 211-232.
  • Verdi Nejad, E., Mirzaee, D. and When the oven, D. (2008). Empowerment. Qom: Campus. 407 p.
LICENSE
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.